La construcción de Líbano

La crisis actual en Líbano es una crisis del Estado libanés. Para detener la violencia es necesario abordar esta crisis estructural.

Cuando Israel retiró sus fuerzas del sur de Líbano en 2000, el acuerdo internacional era que el gobierno libanés reimpondría su autoridad en el área evacuada. El grupo Jezbolá, que encabezó la lucha armada en contra de la ocupación israelí, debía desarmarse y redefinirse como una fuerza política que representara a la comunidad chiíta que había sido marginada históricamente por las élites gobernantes maronitas, sunitas y druzas del país.

Nada de esto sucedió. En lugar de colocar sus fuerzas en el sur de Líbano, el débil gobierno de Beirut consintió la decisión de Jezbolá de convertir la zona en una plataforma para los ataques en contra de Israel. Durante los últimos seis años, Jezbolá estableció virtualmente un Estado dentro de un Estado: su milicia se convirtió en la única fuerza militar en el sur de Líbano, y estableció puestos de avanzada a lo largo de la frontera con Israel, algunas veces a tan sólo algunos metros de ella. De vez en cuando, Jezbolá bombardeaba a Israel y su líder, Hassan Nassrallah, proseguía sus espeluznantes invectivas no sólo en contra de Israel y el sionismo, sino en contra de todos los judíos.

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