Putin und Puschkin

MOSKAU: Die Verhaftung des Medienmoguls Vladimir Gusinsky – es sei dahingestellt, ob auf Befehl Putins oder nicht – hat die Ängste vor einer Medienzensur und Gedankenkontrolle in Russland wieder aufleben lassen. Sind diese Ängste gerechtfertigt? Und was bedeutet Gusinsky’s Verhaftung, wenn sie denn überhaupt etwas voraussagt?

Weder Zensur noch Gulag vermochten das intellektuelle Leben in der Geschichte Russlands vollends zu unterdrücken. Die Genies Akhmatova, Mandelstam, Shostakovich, Pasternak und Prokofiev sind das beste Beispiel dafür: sie schufen selbst in den Alptraum-Jahren der Stalin-Ära grosse Meisterwerke. Im Wissen um die Uneinnehmbarkeit der Intelligenz versuchten die russischen Führer, die Massenmedien an die Kantarre[unter die Faust??] zu nehmen und gleichzeitig die Künstler an ihre Seite zu stellen. Die Zeitungen beugten sich dem Druck und die Künstler taten es ihnen gleich. Der Schriftsteller Puschkin beispielsweise sagte: „Ich bin kein Schmeichler, wenn ich Lobeshymnen auf meinen Zaren singe.“ Selbst Mandelstam schrieb – zwar unter Zwang - eine Ode an Stalin, die ihn jedoch nicht vor dem Gulag und dem Tod bewahren konnte.

Lenin, Khrushchev, Brezhnev und Gorbachev – sie alle bauten die Herrschaft der Sowjetideologie auf der Grundlage der russischen Intelligenz auf. Jeltsin versuchte nach dem Zusammenbruch des Kommunismus die Energie der Intelligentsia in Richtung Markt und Medien zu lenken. Die Hochkultur wurde als Spielzeug des Kremls abgestempelt [??] und im Kampf ums (Über)Leben sich selbst überlassen. Internet und Massenmedien – und nicht die Dichtung – sollten die Katalysatorenrolle spielen, um die russische Zivilgesellschaft in gang[?] zu bringen.

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