Determinación más allá del poder

BUDAPEST – La segunda ronda de la elección parlamentaria griega el 17 de junio es sólo el último síntoma de la crisis más seria que afectó a las democracias occidentales y las sociedades abiertas desde los años 1960. Las democracias liberales en Occidente hoy luchan por evitar -y, al hacerlo, exacerban- una crisis de identidad, que pone en riesgo el contrato social existente y amenaza con su implosión.

El fin de la Guerra Fría legó a nuestros líderes un nuevo conjunto de desafíos en materia de gobernancia, que rápidamente cobraron magnitud, en gran medida debido a una globalización más veloz, a las consecuencias de la liberalización económica de los años 1980 y a la revolución en la tecnología de la información en los años 1990. Estos desafíos, que no se abordaron de manera suficiente, enseguida llevaron a muchos a cuestionar la sustentabilidad del atractivo de la democracia liberal en casa y su universalidad en el exterior, y a explorar los supuestos méritos del "modelo chino", mejor caracterizado como una forma de capitalismo autoritario o estatal.

El colapso financiero de 2008, que enseguida se metamorfoseó hasta convertirse en la recesión económica más profunda de Occidente desde los años 1930, no hizo más que agregar leña al fuego, conforme los responsables de las políticas se pusieron de rodillas y adoptaron una modalidad de gestión de la crisis para nada transparente, condonando una intervención estatal masiva en la economía y la socialización de las pérdidas del sector privado a una escala nunca vista antes. La resultante austeridad fiscal hundió a muchos por debajo de la línea de pobreza y aceleró la desigualdad económica, mientras que muchas instituciones privadas, habiendo causado la crisis de 2008, se recuperaron en la arena pública.

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