A mudança de humor em relação à migração

LONDRES – Os títulos dos jornais sobre a migração podem parecer insuportavelmente austeros: ataques a estrangeiros por neo-fascistas na Grécia, dezenas de trabalhadores domésticos no corredor da morte no Golfo, uma campanha grosseira e insensível levada a cabo pelo governo britânico para expulsar os migrantes. No entanto, apesar do sentimento anti-imigrante, que persiste e que cresce cada vez mais em grande parte do mundo, sinais promissores de uma abordagem mais tolerante à migração estão a emergir.

Os Estados Unidos estão no meio de um intenso debate sobre uma revisão abrangente da imigração. Após um quarto de século de uma quase paralisia, os legisladores americanos estão quase a chegar a acordo sobre as reformas que permitiriam a 11 milhões de imigrantes que não têm documentos a conseguirem obter a cidadania. As mudanças propostas também transformariam os EUA num chamariz para o talento e para a criatividade de todo o mundo.

Os argumentos fiscais e económicos para uma abordagem mais liberal à migração moldaram o debate americano. Segundo o gabinete não partidário de Orçamento do Congresso, a legislação da reforma do Senado dos EUA, aprovada em Junho, resultaria em benefícios fiscais no valor de quase um bilião de dólares nas próximas duas décadas. Os apoiantes também referem que os imigrantes lançaram 28% de todas as novas empresas americanas em 2011, apesar de representarem apenas 13% da população.

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