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Productivité et populisme

NEW-YORK – Depuis l'éclatement de la crise financière mondiale en 2008, la croissance de la productivité des pays avancés (les USA, l'Europe et le Japon) est très faible, tant en termes absolus que par rapport aux décennies précédentes. Pourtant ce n'est pas ce qui se dit dans la Silicon Valley et les autres grands centres technologiques mondiaux. Selon le discours dominant qui s'y tient, nous entrons dans un nouvel âge d'or de l'innovation qui va conduire à une augmentation considérable de la croissance de la productivité et à l'amélioration de nos conditions de vie, y compris au travail. Mais pourquoi ces avantages ne se sont-ils pas encore matérialisées, et que se passera-t-il s'ils ne se matérialisent pas ?

Les percées technologiques sont incontestables dans au moins six domaines :

·      L’énergie, avec les nouvelles formes d’énergie fossile comme le gaz de schiste et les sources d’énergie alternative comme le soleil et le vent, le stockage de l’énergie, les technologies propres et les réseaux d’électricité intelligents.

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