Dean Rohrer

Venezuela sin Chávez

BOGOTÁ– ¿Qué cambiará en América Latina con la muerte de Chávez? El líder populista fue el principal arquitecto de una construcción pólítica que en los 14 años años de su gobierno produjo cambios importantes en las relaciones de los países de la región con Estados Unidos y entre ellos.

Hoy hay en el hemisferio, profundamente dividido, un grupo significativo de países con gobiernos de izquierda que han elaborado nuevos mecanismos de integración entre ellos y cuyas relaciones con Washington tienen mayores niveles de autonomía. Organismos tradicionales como la Organización de Estados Americanos (1968) y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (1969) -donde la influencia de EE.UU es su rasgo constitutivo- se han debilitado para abrir paso al ALBA (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de América), la CELAC (Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños)  y UNASUR (Unión de Naciones Suramericanas).

Bajo el concepto de “socialismo del Siglo XXI”, Chávez cambió su país con una fórmula compuesta por un alto gasto gubernamental en programas sociales, estilo populista, lenguaje demagógico y estirpe autoritaria. Las élites tradicionales fueron remplazadas, la inclusión social de los sectores más pobres se intensificó y las estructuras de poder tradicionales fueron demolidas. La revolución venezolana necesitaba de un apoyo externo y, para asegurarlo, Chávez puso en marcha una política exterior de alto perfil, sustentada en la riqueza petrolera, que incluyó una redefinición de la dependencia tradicional frente a Estados Unidos (calificado y tratado como un peligro imperialista), el acercamiento con poderes extra regionales (incluidos países antiestadounidenses como la Libia de Gadafi, el Irán de Ahmadinejad y la China), y la consolidación de aliados ideológicos en América Latina.

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