La Pologne voit double

Le fait que la Pologne soit actuellement gouvernée par des jumeaux, d’abord connus en tant qu’acteurs lorsqu’ils étaient enfants, en trouble plus d’un. Le Président Lech Kaczynski et le Premier Ministre Jaroslaw Kaczynski sont effectivement fascinants, mais les forces politiques qu’ils représentent sont encore plus intéressantes – et inquiétantes.

Depuis l’automne 2005, les frères Kaczynski sont à la tête d’une coalition conservatrice et populiste, agrémentée d’une bonne dose de nationalisme – représentée par la petite Ligue des familles polonaises (LPR). La droite était au pouvoir de 1990 à 1993 et y a accédé pour la dernière fois en 1997. Le Parti postcommuniste de l’Alliance de Gauche démocratique (SLD) n’a pas été réélu cette année-là, en dépit d’une forte popularité, de cinq années de prospérité économique et de baisse rapide du chômage. La droite, jusque-là divisée, s’est vue remporter les élections grâce à une unité temporaire.

En 1998, c’en était pourtant fini de la prospérité : des années de stagnation et de forte hausse du chômage firent suite au virage à droite du gouvernement. En raison de son incapacité à redresser la situation, la droite fut remplacée en 2001 par un autre gouvernement conduit par le SLD.

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