Demonstration in Poland Wiktor Dabkowski via ZUMA Wire

Польская угроза Европе

ВАРШАВА – Польша стала известна сегодня в качестве последнего европейского поля битвы в соревнованиях между двумя моделями демократии – либеральной и лжелиберальной. Решительная победа на выборах в октябре прошлого года крайне правой партии «Право и Справедливость» (ПС) Ярослава Качинского привела к чему-то больше похожему на смену режима, чем на обычную смену демократически избранных правительств. Новое правительство премьер-министра Беаты Шидло произвело чистку государственной службы (включая общественное радио и телевидение), пополнило Конституционный суд своими сторонниками и урезало полномочия суда по отмене законодательных актов.

В ответ Европейская комиссия начала официальное расследование потенциальных нарушений стандартов ЕС по верховенству права. Кроме того, корпорация Standard & Poor's впервые понизила иностранный рейтинг валюты Польши – от A-до BBB+ – и предупредила относительно возможного дополнительного понижения рейтинга в связи обвинением правительства в ослаблении «независимости и эффективности ключевых институтов». Растущие сомнения относительно приверженности новых руководителей Польши демократическому курсу вызвали резкий спад на фондовом рынке Польши и способствовали обесцениванию польского злотого.

Польша ‑ самая большая страна Европейского союза, вставшая на путь ограниченного либерализма и нетерпимости; но это не первая страна, избравшая подобный курс. Правительство венгерского премьер-министра Виктора Орбана в течение нескольких лет имело разногласия с ЕС в связи с открытой политизацией венгерских общественных институтов, в то время как правительство Роберта Фицо в соседней Словакии следовало аналогичным путем подобного же грубого давления.

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