Europas trügerische Bankenunion

LONDON – Nach einem 16 Stunden dauernden Verhandlungsmarathon waren Politiker, Technokraten und Journalisten am 20. März erpicht darauf, die Einigung über den letzten Teil der Europäischen Bankenunion als Erfolg zu präsentieren. Doch der Schein trügt. Auf dem Papier mag die „Bankenunion” vielleicht ja bald existieren. In der Praxis allerdings wird sie entlang nationaler Grenzen zersplittert bleiben und aufgeteilt  in einen nördlichen „Kern“, wo die Regierungen weiterhin hinter lokalen Banken stehen, und eine südliche „Peripherie“, wo den Regierungen das Geld ausgegangen ist.

Man denke zurück an den Juni 2012. Spaniens ramponierte Banken drohten den spanischen Staat mit in den Abgrund zu reißen, so wie dies 18 Monate zuvor dem irischen Staat mit seinen Banken passierte, während sich in der Eurozone Panik breitmachte. Die Führung der Europäischen Union beschloss, die Verbindung zwischen klammen Banken und finanzschwachen Regierungen aufzubrechen. Eine europäische Bankenunion würde die Verantwortung im Umgang mit Bankenpleiten auf die Ebene der Eurozone heben – ähnlich wie in Amerika, wo sich Bundesbehörden notleidender Banken, beispielsweise in Florida, annehmen und auch die Befugnis haben, Anleihegläubiger zu beteiligen, der betroffenen Bank Bundesmittel zur Verfügung zu stellen und Finanzinstitutionen zu schließen.

Einen Monat später intervenierte die Europäische Zentralbank schließlich, um der Panik Einhalt zu gebieten. Damit wurde der Euro gerettet, aber es wurde auch Druck von Deutschland genommen, die Kontrolle über seine vielfach notleidenden Banken abzutreten. Seit damals nützte die deutsche Regierung ihren Einfluss, um die vorgeschlagene Bankenunion auszuhöhlen. Was bleibt ist eine Hülle, um den Schein zu wahren.

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