Il miraggio economico della Germania

LONDRA – Per 60 anni, tutti i governi tedeschi hanno perseguito una Germania più europea. Ma ora, l’amministrazione della cancelliera Angela Merkel vuole rimodellare le economiche europee a immagine e somiglianza della Germania. È una mossa politicamente poco saggia ed economicamente pericolosa. Lungi dall’essere l’economia di maggior successo in Europa – come millantano il ministro tedesco delle Finanze Wolfgang Schäuble e altri – l’economia della Germania è disfunzionale.

La Germania vanta sicuramente alcuni punti di forza: aziende di fama mondiale, bassi livelli di disoccupazione e un eccellente merito di credito. Ma riserva anche salari stagnanti, banche colte con le mani nel sacco, investimenti inadeguati, deboli guadagni di produttività, una demografia deprimente e un’anemica crescita della produzione. Il suo modello economico del tipo “impoverisci il tuo vicino” – reprimere i salari per sostenere le esportazioni – non dovrebbe essere un esempio da seguire per il resto dell’Eurozona.

L’economia tedesca si è contratta nel secondo trimestre del 2014, ed è cresciuta di appena 3,6% dalla crisi finanziaria globale del 2008 – poco più di Francia e Regno Unito, ma meno della metà del tasso di Svezia, Svizzera e Stati Uniti. Dal 2000 la crescita del Pil ha registrato in media appena l’1,1% annuo, classificandosi in 13a posizione nell’Eurozona a 18 membri.

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