Le mirage économique allemand

LONDRES – Depuis 60 ans, les gouvernements allemands successifs ont cherché à toujours plus européaniser l’Allemagne. Or, aujourd’hui, l'administration de la chancelière Angela Merkel veut remodeler les économies européennes à l'image de l'Allemagne. C'est une idée imprudente sur le plan politique et dangereuse au niveau économique. Loin d'être l'économie la plus réussie de l'Europe – comme le ministre allemand des Finances, Wolfgang Schäuble, et d'autres s’en vantent – l’économie allemande est dysfonctionnelle.

Bien sûr, l'Allemagne a ses points forts : des entreprises de renommée mondiale, un faible taux de chômage et une excellente note de crédit. Mais elle connait aussi une stagnation des salaires, des banques en faillites, une insuffisance des investissements, des gains de productivité faibles, une démographie maussade et une croissance anémique de la production. Son modèle économique protectionniste – qui consiste à tailler dans les salaires pour subventionner les exportations – ne doit pas servir d'exemple à suivre pour le reste de la zone euro.

L'économie allemande s'est contractée au deuxième trimestre de l'année 2014 et a connu une croissance d'à peine 3,6% depuis la crise financière mondiale de 2008 – un peu plus que la France et le Royaume-Uni, mais moins de la moitié du taux de la Suède, de la Suisse et des Etats-Unis. Depuis 2000, la croissance du PIB n’a été en moyenne que de 1,1% par an, ce qui classe le pays à la treizième place sur les 18 pays membres de la zone euro.

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