¿Existe un derecho a la secesión?

BARCELONA – La Unión Europea ha reunido a 28 países en una unión política y económica más estrecha. Paradójicamente, también permite mejor acariciar la idea de desmembrar a algunos de esos países.

Actualmente, la independencia para un Estado pequeño de un grupo político y económico como la UE sería arriesgada. Sin embargo, dentro de la UE las barreras entre los Estados –y, por tanto, los riesgos económicos y políticos de la independencia– serán menores.

Pensemos en Escocia, donde el 18 de septiembre se celebrará un referéndum popular sobre la independencia. Dicho referéndum es la consecuencia de una victoria arrolladora del Partido Nacional Escocés en las elecciones al Parlamento de Escocia celebradas en 2011. El Primer Ministro de Gran Bretaña, David Cameron, se ha pronunciado en contra de que Escocia abandone el Reino Unido, pero no se ha opuesto a la celebración del referéndum. Las encuestas de opinión posteriores al anuncio de la formulación del referéndum (“¿Debe ser Escocia un Estado independiente?”) indican que no es probable que el bando del “sí” obtenga una clara mayoría.

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