Le droit absolu de se séparer existe-t-il ?

BARCELONE – L’Union européenne a resserré les liens politiques et économiques de 28 pays dans un espace commun. Paradoxalement, grâce à l’Union, certaines régions peuvent envisager de se séparer.

De nos jours, pour un petit État qui ne fait pas partie d’un groupe politique et économique comme l’Union européenne, l’indépendance serait risquée. Toutefois, au sein de l’Union européenne, les obstacles entre les États sont moins élevés, tout comme les risques politiques de l’indépendance.

Prenons l’exemple de l’Écosse, où un référendum sur l’indépendance se tiendra le 18 septembre. Le référendum est le résultat d’une victoire écrasante du Parti national écossais dans l’élection parlementaire 2011 d’Écosse. Le premier ministre britannique David Cameron a fait valoir que l’Écosse devrait rester au sein du Royaume-Uni, mais qu’il ne s’opposerait pas à la tenue du référendum. Les sondages d’opinion effectués depuis la publication du libellé de la question qui sera posée au référendum « L’Écosse devrait-elle être un pays indépendant ? » indiquent que le camp du « oui » ne remportera probablement pas une forte majorité.

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