هل يوجد ما يُسمى الحق في الانفصال؟

برشلونة ــ لقد جمع الاتحاد الأوروبي بين ثماني وعشرين دولة في اتحاد سياسي واقتصادي أكثر تقاربا. ومن عجيب المفارقات أنه أيضاً جعل التفكير في انفصال بعض هذه البلدان أمراً عملياً وأكثر مناسبة.

إن استقلال دولة صغيرة خارج جماعة سياسية واقتصادية مثل الاتحاد الأوروبي أمر محفوف بالمخاطر في أيامنا هذه. ولكن داخل الاتحاد الأوروبي أصبحت الحواجز بين الدول ــ وبالتالي مخاطر الاستقلال الاقتصادية والسياسية ــ أقل ارتفاعا.

ولنتأمل هنا حالة اسكتلندا، حيث من المقرر أن يتم إجراء استفتاء شعبي على الاستقلال في الثامن عشر من سبتمبر/أيلول. وهذا الاستفتاء نتيجة للانتصار الساحق الذي حققه الحزب الوطني الاسكتلندي في الانتخابات البرلمانية في عام 2011. وقد ساق رئيس الوزراء البريطاني ديفيد كاميرون الحجج ضد ترك اسكتلندا للمملكة المتحدة، ولكنه لم يعارض إجراء الاستفتاء. وتشير استطلاعات الرأي التي أجريت منذ أعلن موضوع الاستفتاء ("هل ينبغي لاسكتلندا أن تصبح دولة مستقلة؟") إلى أن الرد على الاستفتاء بالإيجاب من غير المرجح أن يحقق أغلبية واضحة.

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