BOGOTÁ – Durante la Guerra Fría, las tensiones entre Occidente y la Unión Soviética afectaron prácticamente a todos los países del mundo. Uno de sus efectos fue el surgimiento en América Latina de grupos guerrilleros que buscaban desestabilizar las dictaduras militares y lograr el retorno de la democracia y las libertades, además de otras reformas políticas; objetivos que, según creían, no se podían alcanzar por la vía pacífica.

Un factor –más que ningún otro– estimuló el surgimiento de estas guerrillas, y ese fue el triunfo de la Revolución Cubana en 1959, que demostró la posibilidad de alzarse con el poder por la vía de las armas. El Che Guevara, uno de los máximos exponentes de esta revolución, murió en Bolivia en 1967 intentando exportar su proyecto guerrillero más allá de Cuba.

Ya terminando el 2012, las condiciones en la región son muy diferentes. La democracia ya no es la excepción sino la regla en el hemisferio occidental, los regímenes militares sucumbieron ante el poder de las urnas y las guerrillas han pasado a ser, en gran medida, una reliquia del pasado.

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