萨缪尔逊殿堂的倒塌

伦敦—在大萧条的阴影下阅读《萨缪尔逊采样器》(The Samuelson Sampler)是为了一撇过去的时代的思维。样本是已故的保罗·萨缪尔逊(Paul Samuelson)1966—1973年间为《新闻周刊》(Newsweek)杂志撰写的每周专栏。

萨缪尔逊是诺贝尔奖获得者、美国经济学家的翘楚:他的著名教科书《经济学》(Economics)在他生前出版了14版,将全世界无数晚辈经济学家引入经济学殿堂。就算不是“新古典综合派”的唯一创始人,他也是这一学派的发扬光大者。新古典综合派结合了新古典和凯恩斯主义经济学,占据经济学主流50年之久。

萨缪尔逊被认为是凯恩斯主义者,不过有所保留。他反对大部分当时凯恩斯对正统经济学的攻击,认为这毫无必要。他写道,“如果凯恩斯[一开始]做出一个简单陈述,指出他发现假设货币工资……是刚性的,难以向下调整这一假设是符合现实的,那么他的大部分洞见将仍然是站得住脚的。”对萨缪尔逊来说,凯恩斯的真正贡献是他给予政府的防止萧条的工具。

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