El asunto de la reconciliación coreana

SEÚL – ¿Puede el comercio fomentar la paz y el entendimiento mutuo entre gobiernos hostiles? Por lo que se refiere a las dos Coreas, esa pregunta puede parecer fuera de lugar, en vista de la implacable purga que está en marcha ahora en Corea del Norte, pero sigue siendo una consideración esencial para el futuro a largo plazo de Corea del Norte y de otros regímenes marginados.

El Complejo Industrial Kaesong, empresa mixta de los gobiernos de Corea del Sur y Corea del Norte, es a un tiempo un tributo al concepto de reconciliación diplomática mediante los negocios y un ensayo difícil de su viabilidad. Unos 50.000 trabajadores norcoreanos están empleados en 123 fábricas que producen mercancías (principalmente textiles, zapatos y productos para el hogar) con un valor de unos 450.000 millones de dólares.

Kaesong es una inversión cara para Corea del Sur, que aporta el capital y las infraestructuras, incluida una central eléctrica, una planta de purificación de agua y un hospital, pero, más de un decenio después de su inauguración, el complejo funciona sólo con el 40 por ciento de su capacidad y ha atraído sólo a empresas medianas.

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