Le business de la réconciliation coréenne

SEOUL – Les transactions et le commerce peuvent-ils favoriser la paix et la compréhension mutuelle entres des États a priori ennemis ? S’agissant de Séoul et Pyongyang, cette question peut sembler hors de propos, compte tenu notamment de l’impitoyable épuration politique qui s’opère actuellement au Nord. Cette problématique n’en demeure pas moins essentielle pour le futur à long terme de la Corée du Nord ainsi que pour l’avenir d’autres régimes marginaux.  

Le complexe industriel de Kaesong, entreprise commune aux gouvernements de la Corée du Nord et du Sud, constitue à la fois l’illustration du concept de réconciliation diplomatique via une relation commerciale, et une mise à l’épreuve en termes de faisabilité. Près de 50 000 travailleurs nord-coréens sont employés au sein de 123 usines produisant pour environ 450 milliards $ de marchandises (principalement du textile, des chaussures et des articles ménagers).

Kaesong représente un investissement coûteux pour la Corée du Sud, qui en fournit les capitaux et les infrastructures, parmi lesquelles une centrale électrique, une installation de purification de l’eau, ainsi qu’un hôpital. Pourtant, plus de dix ans après son inauguration, le complexe ne tourne qu’à 40% de sa capacité, et n’attire que des entreprises de taille moyenne.

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