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Как преодолеть замедление экономического роста

ВАШИНГТОН – Большинство экономистов сейчас пессимистично настроены по поводу перспектив роста мировой экономики. Всемирный банк в очередной раз понизил среднесрочный экономический прогноз; по всему миру экономисты предупреждают, что мы столкнулись с «новой нормальностью» медленного роста. Однако намного меньше консенсуса наблюдается (по крайней мере, на первый взгляд) в объяснении причин этого замедления.

Почти три года назад бывший министр финансов США Ларри Саммерс возродил гипотезу Элвина Хансена о «вековой стагнации», отметив проблемы на стороне рыночного спроса. Напротив, в увлекательной, эрудированной книге Роберта Гордона «Взлёт и падение американского экономического роста» основное внимание уделено долгосрочным факторам на стороне рыночного предложения, в частности, природе инноваций. В бестселлере «Капитал в XXI веке» Тома Пикетти описывает нарастание неравенства, ставшее результатом медленного роста ВВП. В книге Джозефа Стиглица «Переписывая правила американской экономики: Программа для роста и совместного процветания» вина за замедление роста экономики и нарастание неравенства возлагается на принимаемые политические решения.

Все эти версии различаются в акцентах, но не противоречат друг другу. Наоборот, Саммерс, Гордон, Пикетти и Стиглиц исследуют проблему с разных сторон так, что их идеи дополняют друг друга и даже взаимно усиливают.

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