La question du leadership allemand

FRANCFORT – Beaucoup de gens se plaignent dans les pays en crise de la zone euro : ils estiment que l'origine de leur souffrance est un régime rigide d'austérité économique (réduction des salaires et des retraites, hausse d'impôts et montée du chômage), imposé par l'Allemagne. L'hostilité contre l'Allemagne a atteint un niveau inégalé en Europe depuis la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale.

Et pourtant malgré cet antagonisme, de puissants appels pour que l'Allemagne endosse le « leadership » en Europe peuvent se font aussi entendre. L'Allemagne est sans aucun doute la plus importante économie de l'Europe. Avec un faible taux de chômage et des finances publiques relativement saines, elle est aussi la plus performante, du moins pour le moment. Ainsi l'Allemagne est invitée à prendre les devants pour sauver la zone euro, un résultat qui est non seulement dans l'intérêt de l'ensemble de la communauté européenne, mais aussi dans celui de l'Allemagne, qui est largement considérée comme ayant tiré le plus grand bénéfice de la monnaie unique.

Les plaintes concernant l'imposition d'un « régime teutonique » et les appels en faveur d'un leadership allemand semblent se contredire, dans une sorte de dissonance cognitive à l'échelle du continent. En fait, les plaintes et les appels au leadership se renforcent mutuellement. La mise en œuvre des mesures d'austérité à la périphérie de l'Europe a poussé ces pays à demander de l'aide et à ce que l'Allemagne prenne les devants en mettant plus d'argent sur la table de l'Europe.

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