Evropa stará a stárnoucí

Když americký ministr obrany Donald Rumsfeld nedávno hovořil o ,,staré Evropě," měl pravdu, ovšem nikoliv tak, jak zamýšlel. Evropa je skutečně stará - a nadále stárne. Na celém kontinentu jsou děti stále vzácnější. Míra porodnosti (počet dětí na jednu ženu v celé populaci) klesla v Německu a Itálii na 1,2%. Ve Spanělsku je číslo ještě nižší - dosahuje tu evropského dna. Spanělsko je stále mladou společností, bezdětná společnost je ovšem odsouzena k zániku.

Naproti tomu míra porodnosti v USA je 2,4 a v Británii 2,1. Tyto rozdíly jsou pozoruhodné, obzvláště uvážíme-li, že americké i britské programy mateřských dovolených oplývají štědrostí mnohem méně než v kontinentální Evropě. Francie na kontinentu vyčnívá se svou mírou porodnosti na úrovni 1,8. Jde nejspíše o výsledek dlouholeté velkorysosti daňové politiky vůči velkým rodinám.

Migrace je také významným vysvětlením těchto rozdílů. Vyšší míra porodnosti v USA, Británii a Francii odráží velký počet přistěhovaleckých rodin v těchto zemích. Míra porodnosti je mezi imigranty obvykle vyšší než v rodinách rodilých Evropanů a Severoameričanů. Rostoucí počet přistěhovaleckých pracovníků ovšem nemusí míru porodnosti zvyšovat. Například v Německu žije četná populace gastarbeitrů, ale jen málo se jich tu usadí s rodinami - většina nechává své děti v rodné zemi.

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