Obama Opõe-se a Romney em Matéria de Emprego

BERKELEY – Os Estados Unidos completaram recentemente o seu terceiro ano de recuperação económica, mas a taxa de desemprego mantêm-se acima dos 8% e existem sinais preocupantes de abrandamento. Logo, não é de estranhar que o emprego mereça particular atenção na campanha presidencial - ou que os candidatos tenham ideias muito diferentes a respeito do seu crescimento.

No Outono passado, o presidente Obama propôs a Lei Americana de Criação de Emprego (American Jobs Act - AJA), um pacote de 450 mil milhões de dólares em medidas fiscais destinadas à criação de emprego. A AJA ascendia a cerca de 3% do PIB e estava destinada a produzir efeitos em 2012, promovendo o crescimento do emprego e garantindo a recuperação dos Estados Unidos face à maré económica negativa global. A maior parte das medidas da AJA contou com o apoio bipartidário no passado; cerca de 56% do custo total era composto por reduções nos impostos e o pacote seria financiado pelo plano a longo prazo de redução do défice.

Vários economistas independentes concluíram que o plano de Obama possibilitaria um aumento significativo do mercado de trabalho durante o período de 2012-2013. De facto, dois dos analistas mais conceituados previram que a AJA iria adicionar 1,3 a 1,9 milhões de postos de trabalhos em 2012 e mais de dois milhões até ao final de 2013. O apartidário Gabinete de Orçamento do Congresso (CBO - Congressional Budget Office) - também concluiu que a maior parte das políticas da AJA ocupavam um lugar de destaque em termos de eficácia orçamental, sendo medidas através do número de postos de trabalho criados entre 2012-2013 por cada dólar orçamental.

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