Défendre la diplomatie en justice

DUBLIN – Les récentes révélations de l'ancien agent du renseignement américain Edward Snowden suggèrent, entre autres choses, que des dispositifs de surveillance ont été placés par l'Agence Nationale de Sécurité américaine (NSA) dans la mission à Washington D.C. de l'Union européenne. De nombreux Européens, moi y compris, avons du mal à comprendre pourquoi la discussion au sujet de Snowden aux Etats-Unis a mobilisé si peu d'attention pour découvrir si ses allégations sont vraies, et si elles le sont, pour connaître leur signification du point de vue du droit international, de la diplomatie des Etats-Unis et de la sécurité nationale américaine.

Les États-Unis doivent d'abord répondre aux allégations lancées dans un reportage du magazine allemand Der Spiegel, puis fournir un compte-rendu circonstancié de leurs actes. S'ils manquent à ces devoirs, l'Union européenne devra poursuivre les Etats-Unis en justice.

La Convention de Vienne de 1961, ratifiée par les Etats-Unis, codifie le droit international de la diplomatie et des missions diplomatiques. Les États-Unis se sont eux-mêmes référé à cette Convention dans leur procès à contre l'Iran en 1980 devant la Cour Internationale de Justice (CIJ) de La Haye, un an après que des étudiants iraniens et d'autres personnes, avec la bénédiction avérée du régime révolutionnaire, aient pénétré par effraction dans l'ambassade américaine de Téhéran et enlevé ses diplomates.

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