La visión eurasiática de Rusia

NUEVA YORK – El conflicto en aumento en Ucrania entre el Gobierno, apoyado por Occidente, y los separatistas respaldados por Rusia, ha hecho que se centrara la atención en una cuestión fundamental: ¿cuáles son los objetivos del Kremlin a largo plazo? Aunque el objetivo inmediato del Presidente de Rusia, Vladimir Putin, se ha limitado a recuperar el control de Crimea y conservar alguna influencia en los asuntos ucranianos, su ambición a largo plazo es mucho más atrevida.

Dicha ambición no es difícil de discernir. En cierta ocasión Putin hizo la famosa observación de que el desplome de la Unión Soviética fue la mayor catástrofe del siglo XX. Así, su objetivo a largo plazo ha sido el de reconstruirla de alguna forma, tal vez como una unión supranacional de Estados miembros como la Unión Europea.

Ese objetivo no es sorprendente: decadente o no, Rusia siempre se ha considerado a sí misma una gran potencia que debía estar rodeada de Estados-tampón. En la época de los zares, la Rusia imperial extendió sus dominios con el tiempo. Con los bolcheviques, Rusia construyó la Unión Soviética y una esfera de influencia que abarcaba gran parte de la Europa central y oriental y ahora, con el régimen igualmente autocrático de Putin, Rusia se propone crear, con el tiempo, una vasta Unión Eurasiática (UEA).

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