Military museum in Pyongyong with female guide.

¿Un proceso de Helsinki para Corea?

SEÚL – El mes pasado, Corea del Norte y Corea del Sur evitaron por poco una catastrófica confrontación militar. Tras 40 horas de agotadoras negociaciones, el Sur aceptó detener las transmisiones por altavoces hacia la zona desmilitarizada (DMZ) entre ambos países a cambio de que el Norte “lamentara” las muertes de soldados surcoreanos causadas por explosiones de minas terrestres tres semanas atrás.

Si bien en la crisis Corea del Norte exhibió su acostumbrada beligerancia y agresiva retórica, hubo también algunos cambios interesantes. Su correcta comprensión podría ayudar a generar el impulso suficiente para iniciar, tras más de siete años de confrontación, una genuina cooperación entre las dos Coreas y encaminar la península hacia un futuro más pacífico y seguro.

El primero de estos cambios es la postura mucho más firme del gobierno surcoreano a las provocaciones del Norte. En 2010, el pueblo de Corea del Sur se mostró muy crítico ante el hecho de que sus fuerzas armadas no respondieran inmediatamente tras el hundimiento por parte del Norte del Cheonan, un buque de guerra surcoreano con más de 100 efectivos a bordo, y el bombardeo de la Isla Yeonpyeong más entrado aquel año. En contraste, tras los estallidos de las minas terrestres en agosto, el Presidente Park Geun-hye no retiró su exigencia de que el Norte se disculpara, a pesar de negar haber instalado las minas. Sus índices de aprobación subieron desde el 35% del mes anterior a un 50%.

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