Nord Stream Sean Gallup/Getty Images

Ruée allemande vers le gaz naturel russe, une menace pour l’Europe

BRATISLAVA – Il nous arrive à tous de faire preuve de naïveté, et de payer au bout du compte le prix de notre imprudence. C’est ce qu’il arrivera si l’Union européenne dit oui au projet Nord Stream 2, censé multiplier par deux l’approvisionnement en gaz naturel russe à travers la mer Baltique en direction de l’Allemagne. Aux dires des cinq compagnies européennes impliquées dans le projet (dans lequel elles bénéficient chacune d’une participation de 10 %), leur partenariat avec le géant russe Gazprom (détenteur des 50 % restants) ne constitue rien de plus qu’une initiative commerciale. Interviennent en réalité bien d’autres implications – empreintes de dangers considérables. 

Il y a dix ans, lorsque fut annoncé l’accord relatif au premier gazoduc Nord Stream, le ministre polonais des Affaires étrangères, à l’époque Radek Sikorski, compara l’initiative au pacte conclu entre Molotov et Ribbentrop en 1939 (fameux traité de non-agression entre l’Allemagne d’Hitler et l’Union soviétique de Staline). L’UE apposa sa signature à l’accord, les déclarations de Sikorski considérées comme grotesques et exagérées.

Aujourd’hui, au lendemain de l’annexion de la Crimée par la Russie, qui n’a de cesse de subvertir la souveraineté ukrainienne, le discours de Sikorski n’apparaît plus si excentrique. En effet, Gazprom constitue aujourd’hui plus que jamais un véritable instrument de la politique du Kremlin (en plus d’être une source majeure de revenus), voyant ses livraisons gazières fréquemment utilisées à des fins d’extorsion politique, notamment dans le but de maintenir sous contrôle les républiques ex-soviétiques telles que l’Ukraine.   

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