Micro, macro, méso et méta-économie

HONG-KONG – Du fait du poids de la crise sur l'économie mondiale et sur les marchés financiers, il n'est pas surprenant que l'on reconsidère en profondeur les principes de l'économie moderne. Enfin, la voix des économistes dissidents touche une large audience !

A titre d'exemple, le prix Nobel Ronald H. Coase regrettait que la plupart des modèles micro-économiques ressemblent à des boites noires qui ne prennent pas véritablement en compte les relations contractuelles entre les entreprises et les marchés. Il soulignait que lorsque le coût des transactions est faible et le droit de propriété est bien défini, des contrats privés innovants peuvent résoudre des problèmes tels que celui de la pollution qui nécessitent une réponse collective. Mais en raison de l'obsession des économistes avec une théorie des prix simpliste, les responsables politiques ont massivement recours à des instruments fiscaux.

Un autre prix Nobel, Paul Krugman, a déclaré qu'au cours des 30 dernières années la macro-économie a été au mieux inutile, et au pire nuisible. Il estime que les économistes sont devenus aveugles à des échecs catastrophiques parce qu'ils ont pris la beauté et l'élégance des modèles théoriques pour la réalité.

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