Inovação no Financiamento ao Desenvolvimento

ROMA – Há mais de quatro décadas, os países mais ricos do mundo comprometeram-se a destinar pelo menos 0,7% do seu PIB à ajuda pública ao desenvolvimento (APD). Mas menos de meia dúzia de países atingiu esse objectivo. Na verdade, as contribuições para a APD não têm apresentado estabilidade, fiabilidade, ou aderência às necessidades, e persistem dúvidas sobre a sua eficácia.

A APD decresceu significativamente após a Guerra Fria, caindo para 0,22% do PIB combinado dos países desenvolvidos entre 1997-2001, antes de crescer outra vez após os ataques terroristas de 11 de Setembro de 2011 nos Estados Unidos, e da Conferência sobre Financiamento para o Desenvolvimento em Monterrey, México, no ano seguinte. Depois, enquanto os governos dos países desenvolvidos impuseram a rígida austeridade fiscal na sequência da crise económica global, a APD caiu novamente, para 0,31% do PIB em 2010-2011.

Mas, desde a conferência de Monterrey, foram identificadas necessidades adicionais importantes para o financiamento do desenvolvimento, incluindo modelos de apoio às trocas comerciais e financiamento para mitigação e adaptação às alterações climáticas. E, enquanto o Grupo Piloto sobre o Financiamento para o Desenvolvimento – que inclui 63 governos, bem como organizações internacionais e grupos da sociedade civil – contribuiu para progressos significativos na última década, a definição de financiamento inovador para o desenvolvimento continua em discussão. Na verdade, os críticos defendem que os impostos internacionais – por exemplo, sobre emissões de carbono – que o Grupo Piloto identificou como fontes potenciais de financiamento violam a soberania nacional.

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