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uk wage protest Wiktor Szymanowicz / Barcroft Media via Getty Images

工资增长下降的政治根源

新德里——现在已经是官方承认的数据:世界各国的工人正在落后于其他群体。国际劳工组织(ILO)最新发表的全球工资报告发现,除中国外,2017年(经通胀调整后的)实际工资年增长率仅为1.1%,低于2016年1.8%的增长率。工资增长速度之慢创下了2008年来的新低。

在先进的20国集团经济体中,相比于2015年的1.7%,2017年平均实际工资仅增长0.4%。虽然美国实际工资增长0.7%(2015年则增长2.2%),但欧洲的工资增长却陷入停滞,欧洲某些小国的工资增长被法国、德国、意大利和西班牙的工资下降所吞噬。鉴于前者不断扩大的经常账户盈余和后者不断下降的失业率和紧张的劳动力市场,像德国和美国等“成功范例”的工资增长放缓尤其令人感到诧异。

新兴市场2017年的平均工资增长为4.3%,高于20国集团的发达经济体,但仍慢于上一年的工资增长率(4.9%)。亚洲的实际工资增长最快,这主要归功于中国和若干小国,如柬埔寨、斯里兰卡和缅甸。但总体而言,2017年绝大多数亚洲经济体的工资增长出现了减速。而在拉美和非洲,有些国家则出现了实际工资下降的趋势。

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