Ani spiknutí ani shovívavost: Zázrak Kulatého stolu

VARŠAVA: Tento měsíc před deseti lety se odehrály první částečně svobodné volby v komunistické zemi. Stalo se tak v Polsku a byl to zásadní krok na cestě, zahájené roku 1980 hnutím Solidarita a ukončené pádem berlínské zdi a celkovým rozpadem sovětského systému.

Tyto volby byly důsledkem kompromisu vzešlého z několikatýdenních jednání u tzv. Kulatého stolu mezi špičkami komunistické strany a představiteli odborového svazu Solidarita. Je trochu paradoxní, že o volby, které nakonec vyústily v sestavení první nekomunistické vlády, vyjednavačům Solidarity vlastně tolik nešlo.

Později se mezi politiky a komentátory stala tato jednání předmětem vášnivých debat. Objevily se dva mýty. První se týkal shovívavosti komunistických špiček, které prý ve chvíli, kdy se demokracie stávala skutečností, odevzdali moc opozici. Druhý mýtus hovořil o spiknutí mezi rudými a “růžovými” – mezi komunistickými lídry a “umírněnými” levičáky, kteří zastupovali Solidaritu při jednáních u kulatého stolu – , díky kterému se prý komunisté vyhnuli velké ostudě a díky kterému mohli zinscenovat “comeback” v hávu nové politické strany levého spektra.

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