L'Otan après Riga

Lorsque l'Union soviétique s'est effondrée, beaucoup ont prédit la fin de l'Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord (Otan). Pourtant, l'Otan a tenu il y a quelques semaines son sommet dans la capitale lettonne de Riga, qui faisait autrefois partie de l'URSS.

L'Otan a été créée en 1949 pour contenir le pouvoir soviétique. Le traité concernait avant tout l'Europe occidentale, et on disait en plaisantant qu'il voulait laisser les Russes dehors, les Allemands à terre et les Américains dedans. Mais ce monde de la Guerre froide est mort et enterré. L'Allemagne est désormais une démocratie fermement ancrée dans l'Union européenne, et aucun tank russe ne menace plus de balayer les plaines du nord de l'Allemagne.

L'Otan a survécu en se transformant. Même si certains membres de l'Europe centrale autrefois occupés par l'URSS continuent de voir l'Otan comme une assurance politique contre un renouveau des ambitions russes, l'Otan n'est plus dirigée contre la Russie. De fait, les officiers russes sont invités à participer aux exercices militaires et à visiter les QG de l'Otan dans le cadre du programme de Partenariat pour la paix. Certes, quelques soupçons résiduels et l'orgueil russe limitent l'accord entre l'Otan et la Russie, mais l'organisation n'est plus dirigée contre la Russie.

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