Rudd, May and Boris Daniel Leal-Olivas/Stringer

新的排外主义

牛津——西方民主政府正日渐迷失方向。从波兰和匈牙利转向反自由主义到英国退欧公投和唐纳德·特朗普在美国总统竞选中获胜,某种特别致命的民粹主义正在感染全社会——并且仍在传播的过程中。

民粹主义的诉求简单粗暴。民众面对工资停滞和生活品质下降感到沮丧——尤其当领导人不断告诉他们局面正在改善时就更是这样。然后民粹主义者现身并承诺改变一些事情,以捍卫民众(其实是其中某些人)的利益,并且提供可能比可行解决方案更具吸引力的东西:那就是替罪羊。

替罪羊名单上名列前茅的是“精英阶层”——也就是现有的政党和企业领袖。民粹主义者宣称,这些人不仅不保护“民众”免于承受经济压力和不安全感,反而从民众的痛苦中获得好处。通过推进全球化——通过迫使民众吞下更多开放的苦果——他们成功积累了大量财富,然后通过避税、离岸外包和其他见不得人的手段来加以保护。

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