金融竞争太多了吗?

新德里—许多经济学家在号召实施让银行业再度变得“无聊”而不具竞争性的监管。每逢危机过去,限制竞争的呼声都会出现,这没什么出奇。大萧条期间,美国国家复兴局首脑指出,雇主因为“认定野蛮残忍竞争、狗咬狗和为赢得最后胜利不择手段的可怕意识形态”而被迫解雇工人。他呼吁建设能够共荣的商业环境,从消费者那里获得的利润应由雇主和工人共享。

对竞争的有害效应的担忧一直存在着,即使那些不认为政府指令能够取代市场的人以及那些不认为人性本善是比金钱奖惩更强大的动机的人也相信这一点。不过,这场争论最热的焦点在于竞争对创新激励的效应。

伟大的奥地利经济学家约瑟夫·熊彼特认为,创新是比企业间常规价格竞争更能促进人类境况改善的力量。年轻时,熊彼特似乎认为垄断会阻碍创新激励,特别是彻底创新的激励。简言之,垄断者不喜欢因为使用侵蚀已有业务的创新而失去已有的垄断利润。

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