Jak modernizovat blízkovýchodní ekonomiky

AMMÁN – Před pojmy „Blízký východ“ nebo „arabský svět“ dávám stále častěji přednost zkratce WANA, která označuje západní Asii a severní Afriku. Ať už se však rozhodneme nazývat tento region jakkoliv, hrozí nebezpečí, že globální ekonomická krize poslouží vládám i jiným institucím v oblasti jako téměř dokonalá záminka k pokračování v „byznysu jako obvykle“, zatímco ve skutečnosti je zapotřebí hlasitý budíček.

Globální ekonomická krize jen pomohla zamaskovat chronické strukturální nerovnováhy v regionu. Téměř všechny ekonomiky WANA charakterizuje přehnaná závislost na zahraniční pomoci a ropných příjmech. Není přehnané tvrdit, že tyto země v jistém smyslu přežívají na přístrojích. Problém, jak je této závislosti zbavit, se zdá být nepřekonatelný.

V zemích WANA totiž zavládla „holandská nemoc“ a rentiérský duch, které postihly ropné i neropné státy a zasáhly vše od peněz zasílaných lidmi pracujícími v zahraničí přes finanční investiční toky z ropných zemí (zejména do nemovitostí) a bublinami na akciových trzích až po zahraniční pomoc. Vedlejším příznakem tohoto jevu je prohloubení příjmových nerovností, a to jak uvnitř zemí WANA, tak i mezi nimi.

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