Modernisierung a la carte? – Über das Verhältnis von Menschenrechten

Über zwei Jahrhunderte ist es mittlerweile her, seitdem die amerikanische und etwas später die französische Revolution die naturrechtliche Idee unveräußerlicher Menschenrechte hervorgebracht hatten. Bis diese Idee sich zumindest theoretisch global durchgesetzt, bedurfte es aber noch fast zweier weiterer Jahrhunderte, angefüllt mit Kriegen, politischen und sozialen Katastrophen und der Entkolonialisierung der Welt.

In ihren Anfängen war diese Idee der Menschenrechte auf die Innenpolitik beschränkt. Im Verkehr der Staaten untereinander zählte auch weiterhin nicht das Recht, sondern allein die Macht.

Der klassische staatliche Souveränitätsbegriff war ausschließlich auf die Macht gestützt, d.h. auf die Kontrolle von Bevölkerung und Territorium. Wie zivil oder brutal, wie demokratisch oder autoritär diese Kontrolle jeweils durchgesetzt wurde, fiel unter den Schutz des Begriffs der staatlichen Souveränität.

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