La militarización de los Andes

Mientras la atención mundial se concentra en Irak, hay signos de que el Plan Colombia, desarrollado por Estados Unidos para combatir el narcotráfico y las guerrillas izquierdistas en Colombia pronto podría comenzar a aplicarse como estrategia general en otras naciones de los Andes, si es que no en toda América Latina. Pareciera que Colombia sólo se menciona en la actualidad en relación con la decisión del Presidente Álvaro Uribe de postularse a la reelección este mes, y una consecuencia es que se ha informado poco de la ampliación del Plan Colombia, a pesar de sus magros y ambivalentes resultados.

Cuando se hizo público en 2000, el Plan Colombia tenía una doble lógica: reducir drásticamente la producción y exportación de narcóticos, al tiempo que se fortalecía la campaña de contrainsurgencia de Colombia contra los rebeldes de las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC). En ese entonces, EE.UU. consideraba que Colombia tenía en su seno dos amenazas cada vez más interrelacionadas que, de no mediar una respuesta militar exitosa, anunciaban la sombría perspectiva de convertirla en un estado fallido.

De hecho, a pesar de haber recibido casi 1,4 mil millones de dólares de EE.UU. entre 1989 y 1999 para el combate al narcotráfico, Colombia no había reducido el problema. Peor aún, la insurgencia económica, territorial y militar de las FARC se estaba intensificando. De hecho, entre 1995 y 1998 el ejército colombiano sufrió sus peores reveses (muertes, capturas y emboscadas) en las cuatro décadas de insurgencia.

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