Die Militarisierung der Anden

Während die Welt ihre ganze Aufmerksamkeit auf den Irak richtet, könnte der von den USA zur Bekämpfung von Drogen und der linksgerichteten Guerilla entwickelte Kolumbien-Plan in den Andenstaaten oder überhaupt in ganz Lateinamerika bald als Generalstrategie umgesetzt werden. Es scheint, als ob Kolumbien heute nur mehr in Zusammenhang mit Präsident Alvaro Uribes Wiederwahlkampagne für die Ende dieses Monats anberaumten Wahlen erwähnt wird. So wurde auch von der Ausweitung des Kolumbien-Plans trotz seiner bisher dürftigen und zwiespältigen Resultate kaum Notiz genommen.

Als der Kolumbien-Plan im Jahr 2000 der Öffentlichkeit vorgestellt wurde, verfolgte man damit zwei Ziele: Erstens die drastische Verringerung der Produktion und des Exports von Drogen und zweitens eine Stärkung der Aufstandsbekämpfung gegen die Rebellen der Revolutionären Streitkräfte Kolumbiens (FARC). Damals sahen die USA Kolumbien als das Ursprungsland zweier zunehmend miteinander verflochtenen Bedrohungen, die, wie man fürchtete, ohne erfolgreiche militärische Reaktion, Kolumbien als Staat scheitern lassen könnten.

Obwohl Kolumbien von den USA zwischen 1989 und 1999 1,4 Milliarden Dollar erhielt, war man nicht in der Lage, das Problem zu entschärfen. Der ökonomische, territoriale und militärische Aufstand der FARC-Guerillas verschärfte sich sogar noch. So musste die kolumbianische Armee zwischen 1995 und 1998 die schlimmsten Rückschläge in den vier Jahrzehnten des Aufstandes hinnehmen – es gab Todesopfer, Gefangennahmen und Angriffe aus dem Hinterhalt.

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