Oil painting of fire.

Crisis del Medio Oriente y riesgos globales

NUEVA YORK – Entre los riesgos geopolíticos de la actualidad, ninguno es mayor que el arco largo de inestabilidad que se extiende desde el Magreb hasta la frontera entre Afganistán y Pakistán. Ahora que la Primavera Árabe se torna en un recuerdo cada vez más distante, la inestabilidad a lo largo de este arco se profundiza. De hecho, de entre los tres países donde inicialmente surgió la Primavera Árabe, Libia se convirtió en un Estado fallido, Egipto regresó a un régimen autoritario y Túnez está siendo desestabilizado económica y políticamente por  ataques terroristas.

La violencia y la inestabilidad del norte de África se extienden hacia el África subsahariana: ahora el Sahel – una de las regiones más pobres y con el medio ambiente más dañado del mundo – está bajo el control del yihadismo, que se infiltra también en el oriente del Cuerno de África. Y, al igual que en Libia, las guerras civiles están en su apogeo en Irak, Siria, Yemen y Somalia, todos estos países que, paulatinamente, se muestran como Estados fallidos.

La agitación en la región (misma que Estados Unidos y sus aliados ayudaron a impulsar, en su búsqueda de un cambio de régimen en Irak, Libia, Siria, Egipto y otros países más) también está menoscabando Estados que anteriormente eran seguros. La afluencia de refugiados de Siria e Irak está desestabilizando a Jordania, Líbano, y ahora incluso a Turquía, que se torna, gradualmente, en un país  más autoritario bajo el régimen del presidente Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. Simultáneamente, debido al conflicto no resuelto entre Israel y los palestinos, Hamás en Gaza y Hezbollah en el Líbano representan una amenaza crónica de violentos enfrentamientos con Israel.

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