Le Opzioni Del Mondo Arabo

AMMAN – All’inizio, nel 2011, l’obiettivo primario del risveglio arabo avrebbe dovuto essere quello di far avanzare il pluralismo e la democrazia - cause che erano state trascurate nel XX secolo al suo primo risveglio anti - coloniale. Ma, dopo tre anni di lotta, il processo è appena iniziato. Il secondo risveglio arabo riuscirà finalmente a raggiungere i suoi obiettivi?

La risposta dipende dal modello utilizzato dai paesi arabi, nella guida verso la transizione, tra i tre seguenti: un modello inclusivo, lungimirante, il cui obbiettivo è la costruzione del consenso; un approccio del tipo “chi vince prende tutto” che esclude ampie fasce della popolazione; o un approccio del tipo “non ci si ferma davanti a niente” focalizzato sulla sopravvivenza del regime. Questi modelli rispecchiano le enormi differenze tra le attuali circostanze e le prospettive future dei paesi arabi.

L’esempio più forte del modello inclusivo è la Tunisia, dove gli ex avversari hanno formato un governo di coalizione, senza interferenze militari. Naturalmente, il processo non è stato facile. Ma, dopo contrapposizioni molto aspre, i Tunisini hanno riconosciuto che la cooperazione era l’unica strada percorribile.

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