Reinicializar la globalización

DUBAI – Como muchos han señalado recientemente, la globalización está en retroceso. A pesar de todos sus innegables beneficios, ha generado problemas de gobierno y gestión que han puesto en evidencia la insuficiencia de los gobiernos nacionales y las instituciones internacionales.

Los seres humanos de todo el planeta, tanto ricos como pobres, se ven en una situación en que deben hacer frente a problemas (como los estados fallidos, la banca en quiebra, la sobrepesca, el subempleo, el cambio climático o el estancamiento económico) a los que la globalización ha contribuido, pero sin poderlos solucionar de manera efectiva. La fragilidad de las instituciones ha dado lugar a violentas reacciones políticas y al peligro de que ocurran desastres en distintos frentes.

Mark Leonard, director del Consejo Europeo de Relaciones Exteriores y Vicepresidente del nuevo Consejo de la Agenda Global sobre Geoeconomía del Foro Económico Mundial, ha señalado que la interdependencia, anteriormente una ventaja económica, ahora también se ha convertido en una amenaza. "Nadie está dispuesto a perder los beneficios de la economía global", escribió hace poco, "pero las grandes potencias están pensando en cómo protegerse de sus riesgos, tanto en lo militar como de otras maneras". De hecho, "tras 25 años de unirse con vínculos cada vez más estrechos, el mundo parece decidido a volver a segregarse".

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