Mario Monti sur la sellette

Mario Monti, le commissaire européen à la concurrence, est souvent sous les feux de l'actualité et il bénéficie généralement d'une grande popularité. Au cours du temps, il a remporté d'importantes victoires en limitant les subventions publiques aux entreprises, l'une des tares économiques les plus pernicieuses qui soient. Mais aujourd'hui sa réussite est compromise par une série accablante de procès perdus. Avec la conclusion de l'affaire du géant Microsoft - déclenchée par une question de monopole - qui paraît en vue, il a tout intérêt à retrouver rapidement son assise.

En l'espace de quelques semaines, la Cour européenne de justice (auprès de laquelle il peut être fait appel des décisions de la Commission) a annulé trois vétos pris par Mario Monti à l'encontre de fusions d'entreprises. Même si les subventions publiques et les fusions d'entreprises sont de deux domaines distincts, ses échecs répétés dans ce dernier domaine ne sont pas sans conséquences dans l'action qu'il mène par ailleurs, notamment dans sa lutte contre le soutien de l'Etat au secteur privé.

L'annulation de ses vétos par la Cour constitue un camouflet sans précédent. Dans l'affaire de la fusion Schneider---Legrand, elle cite plusieurs erreurs manifestes, des omissions et des contradictions dans l'analyse économique de la Commission, ainsi que des irrégularités de procédure qui constituent une atteinte aux droits de la défense. Dans l'affaire Tetra Laval, la Cour conteste "l'analyse économique des conséquences à court terme de la fusion sur la concurrence" qui était "affectée d'une insuffisance d'éléments probants et comportait certaines erreurs d'évaluation".

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