Compromis transatlantiques

LONDRES – Près de deux décennies après que l’idée ait une première fois germée, les Etats-Unis et l’Union Européenne se sont mis d’accord la semaine dernière pour entamer des négociations en vue d’un partenariat transatlantique de commerce et d’investissement (PTCI). Le lancement de ce partenariat – qui devrait être instauré début 2015 – a été présenté comme une très nécessaire « incitation vers un déficit zéro » qui relancerait le PIB américain et européen de 0,5% par an tout en favorisant l’emploi de part et d’autre de l’Atlantique.

Les deux parties prétendent éliminer les dernières barrières douanières sur le commerce bilatéral mais ils sont aussi particulièrement désireux de réduire le dédale de barrières non tarifaires – principalement les standards et règlementations sanitaires et techniques concurrentiels. Une coopération plus étroite en matière de réglementation pourrait aussi aider les Etats-Unis et l’UE à faire face à ce que les chefs d’entreprises considèrent de plus en plus comme une concurrence déloyale de la part de la Chine, à domicile comme ailleurs dans le monde.

Mais ce PTCI peut-il être à la hauteur d’un tel enthousiasme ? Il est frappant de noter que le Groupe d’étude de haut niveau sur l’emploi et la croissance, dont la tâche est de déterminer les bases de la négociation, a recommandé une approche plus conservatrice.

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