马里和伊斯兰宗教改革

巴黎—马里是一个西非内陆国家,有1 500万人口,1 240 000平方公里领土,其中四分之三是沙漠。在14世纪,强大的马里帝国统治着今天的塞内加尔、圭亚那和尼日尔。被击败并分崩离析后,19世纪马里成为法国殖民地,1960年赢得独立。

马里的 人口十分多样化:北方分布着沙漠游牧部落,主要是图阿雷格人(Tuareg),南方分布着占据多数的定居黑人。马里语言众多,但伊斯兰教徒占全国人口的95%,成为一个稳定要素。农业是主要经济活动,主要分布在广袤的尼日尔河内陆三角洲,这里也是众多部落的大本营,包括以雕塑和建筑著称的多贡族(Dogon)。

马里经历过长时间的军事独裁统治,但1991—2012年,马里成为非洲民主成功的典范,接着,一场政变摧毁了马里尚显幼稚的公共制度。在北方,图阿雷格人向毛里塔尼亚、阿尔及利亚和尼日尔迁移,他们对持续干旱和大篷车经济的崩溃最为敏感。许多人开始从事武器、奴隶和黄金买卖;一些人开始要求独立。

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