让欧洲运转起来

巴黎— 一些经济学家认为,这个夏天将因某些欧元区外围成员国踏上被迫离开之路而被铭记;其他经济学家则认为发生这种情况的可能性极小。他们都同意,至少是在短期,欧元区解体将对就业和增长形成灾难性影响。

但是,由于结果不可知,且取决于政治不亚于取决于经济,因此我们姑且将耸人听闻的前景放一放,看看我们究竟对欧盟经济基本表现知道多少。简言之,在2012年夏天,欧洲竞争力如何?

如果我们比较一下欧盟15国(EU-15,2004和2007年两次扩大之前的欧盟国家)美国,最显而易见的一点是欧洲人均GDP比美国要低近25%,即每年11 000美元。此外,人均欧盟生产率——在1995年之前的20年中,欧洲的这一指标一直在向美国靠拢,到1995年时只比美国低5%——在欧元区危机前的十年中相对美国下降了10个百分点。欧洲无法赶上美国从信息技术革命中获得的生产率大跃迁。

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