Un “fabricado en China” renovado

SHANGHAI – “Es un negocio agonizante”, dijo el propietario de una fábrica de prendas de vestir al que conocí en Zhuhai, ciudad de la provincia de Guangdong. Como muchos de su gremio, está preparándose para cerrar. Hace dos decenios, los inversores afluyeron a Zhuhai, atraídos por la mano de obra abundante y barata. El auge de las camisetas, los juguetes, las flores de plástico, los azulejos, las perchas, los muelles y demás es, al parecer, cosa del pasado. Hoy los costos de fabricación de esos artículos son menores en países como Blangladesh y Vietnam que en Guangdong.

Como los costos laborales siguen aumentando, ¿está destinada China a perder su codiciada posición de taller del mundo?

El aumento de los costos laborales es inevitable. En 2008, el Gobierno de China introdujo una legislación laboral más estricta y un salario mínimo. Las políticas recientes encaminadas a mejorar las condiciones económicas de las zonas rurales han aminorado la corriente de migrantes procedentes del campo. Los trabajadores exigen una mayor remuneración, a la altura del aumento del costo de la vida en las ciudades de China, como se ha manifestado en una destacada huelga aún no concluida en una fábrica Honda radicada en Guangdong. El salario fue el  aspecto más importante del conflicto.

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