Lever la malédiction des ressources

Les pays riches en ressources naturelles sont souvent pauvres car l’exploitation de ces ressources a pris la priorité sur une bonne gouvernance. Les compagnies pétrolières et minières en concurrence, qui bénéficient du soutien de leurs gouvernements, sont souvent désireuses de traiter avec toute personne pouvant leur garantir une concession. Cette situation a donné naissance à des gouvernements corrompus et répressifs et à des conflits armés. En Afrique, des pays riches en ressources tels que le Congo, l'Angola et le Soudan ont été dévastés par des guerres civiles. Au Moyen-Orient, le développement démocratique a pris du retard.

La levée de cette « malédiction des ressources » pourrait contribuer de manière significative à réduire la pauvreté et la misère dans le monde et un mouvement international a été formé uniquement à cet effet. La première étape est la transparence, la deuxième la responsabilisation.

Le mouvement a commencé quelques années auparavant avec la campagne Publiez ce que vous payez, qui a exhorté les compagnies pétrolières et minières à divulguer les paiements aux gouvernements. En réponse, le gouvernement britannique a lancé l’Initiative sur la transparence des industries extractives (EITI). Hier, trois années après, le RU est sur le point de convoquer une importante conférence EITI à Londres, à laquelle assisteront des représentants de gouvernements, d'entreprises et de la société civile.

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