Los valores no retóricos de Europa

VARSOVIA – El debate sobre el futuro de Europa está cargado de retórica equivocada y sentimental, en la que el discurso vago sobre “más Europa” impide las discusiones sobre los verdaderos problemas de los países europeos. En efecto, más allá del lenguaje espeso existen asuntos fundamentales que deben abordarse de forma convincente. ¿Qué es exactamente lo que supondría “una Europa federal”? ¿Acaso “solidaridad europea” es un eufemismo de unión de transferencias a la que Alemania se opone, o de los rescates masivos del Banco Central Europeo?

Dicha retórica muestra usualmente un sesgo centralista, en el que la búsqueda de “más Europa” se presenta como la única manera en que la Unión Europea puede competir en el ámbito económico con países políticamente centralizados como los Estados Unidos o China. Sin embargo, se confunde competitividad económica con poder militar. Para obtener los beneficios de la integración europea, esta debe alcanzarse mediante interacciones individuales, económicas y de otro tipo, apoyadas con la eliminación de barreras reglamentarias.

El enfoque centralista no considera las amplias diferencias en el desempeño económico de países de la Unión Europea (UE) –e ignora el hecho de que son más claras las historias de éxito económico en los países más pequeños de Europa que en los grandes. Dentro de la eurozona el crecimiento acumulativo del PIB desde 2008 ha variado de -23.6% en Grecia a 5.2% en Eslovaquia; fuera de la eurozona ha ido de -4.1% en el Reino Unido a 12.5% en Polonia. Las economías de Polonia, Eslovaquia, los países Bálticos, Bulgaria, Suecia y Alemania han crecido más rápidamente que la de los Estados Unidos; mientras que Hungría, Dinamarca, y gran parte de los países de la eurozona han tenido un crecimiento negativo.

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