Des leçons mexicaines

Le 2 juillet dernier, les élections présidentielles au Mexique ont déclenché une amère bataille politique. Dès la proclamation de la victoire du candidat conservateur Felipe Calderon, avec moins d’un point d’avance, son rival populiste Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador a déclaré qu’il y avait eu fraude. Depuis deux mois, des milliers de fervents partisans de Lopez Obrador ont transformé le Zocalo, la place principale de Mexico, en un gigantesque campement, devenu le centre de gravité de la contestation des résultats officiels.

Le 1er septembre, plusieurs dizaines de représentants de l’opposition ont créé l’événement au parlement en occupant la tribune, empêchant ainsi le président sortant Vicente Fox de prononcer en personne son dernier discours sur l’état de la nation. Quatre jours plus tard, la plus haute juridiction électorale mexicaine a rendu son verdict : Fox est coupable d’ingérences abusives dans le processus électoral, mais Calderon est bien le vainqueur. Lopez Obrador a promis de faire tout son possible pour empêcher Calderon de gouverner, dès son entrée en fonction le 1er décembre prochain.

La manière dont un pays fait face à une crise en dit long sur sa stabilité structurelle. Des crises électorales similaires ont éclaté aux Etats-Unis en 2000 et en Ukraine en 2004. Dans les deux cas, à la suite d’une campagne particulièrement virulente, de nombreux électeurs ont mis en cause la légitimité des résultats, et la plus haute juridiction du pays a dû se prononcer quant au recomptage des suffrages exprimés.

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