Dvě levice Latinské Ameriky

V posledních několika letech narůstal – a v posledních měsících získával na síle – pocit, že Latinská Amerika se jako kyvadlo naklání zpět k levici. Zdá se, že nevýrazné, ba občas skličující výsledky hospodářských reforem vyvolaly vlnu, která vynesla k moci levicové prezidenty napříč kontinentem, od vítězství Huga Cháveze ve Venezuele na konci 90. let přes úspěch Ricarda Lagose v Chile a Nestora Kirchnera v Argentině až po nedávná zvolení Luize Inácia Luly da Silva v Brazílii a Tabaré Vázqueze v Uruguayi. Další levicová vítězství jsou podle všeho na obzoru v Mexiku, Peru a v Bolívii.

Ačkoliv premisy, z nichž tento obecný trend pramení, jsou jasné, voliči v Latinské Americe své hlasy nedávají jedné, ale dvěma levicím.

Jistěže, ač byl rok 2004 pro region s ohledem na hospodářský růst jedním z lepších let, výsledky dvou desetiletí takzvaných strukturálních reforem jsou stále neuspokojivé. Zvětšila se nerovnost, chudoby přinejlepším jen mírně ubylo, zaměstnanost zůstává tvrdohlavě nízká, korupce, násilí, zločin a politická ztuhlost jsou nadále rozšířené a zahraniční investice a dohody o volném obchodu teprve musí splnit své sliby. Za těchto okolností ani zdaleka nepřekvapuje silná ideologická a politická reakce namířená proti protržnímu „Washingtonskému konsenzu“ s jeho důrazem na liberalizaci, deregulaci a privatizaci.

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