latin american unrest Gregory Smith/Getty Images

有问题的政治叙事

利马——在拉美各国,直到不久前还对左翼政府充满热情的选民心意似乎正在悄然变化。在巴西和委内瑞拉,选民想要推翻自己的领袖。在阿根廷,他们已经完成了这项任务。在玻利维亚,选民否决了莫拉莱斯总统修改宪法寻求连任的努力。而在秘鲁,没有一位左翼候选人进入到将在6月5日举行的第二轮总统选举。

但从经验中汲取教训比乍看上去棘手得多。我们无法重温过去;而只能讲述过去的故事——我们所讲的故事往往仅与真实事件有着松散的关系。在拉丁美洲,这样的状况最为真实。

拉丁美洲左翼领袖——尤其是巴西的路易斯·伊纳西奥·卢拉·达席尔瓦、委内瑞拉的查韦斯和阿根廷的克里斯蒂娜·基什内尔所倡导的叙事基于“人民”和所谓“反人民力量”之间经过改造的阶级博弈。他们称前任实行所谓“亲富政策”,因为实行这些政策的政府屈从于富人。他们自己的民众运动据说是为反抗保护反人民力量利益的政治构架——他们称当地精英往往与帝国主义(主要指美国)结为一体。

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